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A bit of information concerning fanlistings in general and chemistry.


The Fanlistings.org defines fanlistings as "a web clique that lists fans of a particular subject. Unlike most web cliques, a person does not need a web site in order to join. Fans from around the world submit their information to their approved fanlisting and they are then listed to show their love for the subject."


Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning "earth") is the science treating matter at the atomic to macromolecular scale, the reactions, transformations and aggregations of matter, as well as accompanying energy and entropy changes during these processes. In short, chemistry studies molecules, crystals, and metal/nonmetals and is concerned with the composition and statistical properties of such structures, as well as their transformations and interactions to become materials encountered in everyday life. According to modern chemistry, the physical properties of materials are generally determined by their structure at the molecular or atomic scale, which is itself defined by interatomic electromagnetic forces, and laws of quantum mechanics and thermodynamics from various fields of physics. Robert Boyle (1661), Antoine Lavoisier (1787), and John Dalton (1808) can be considered the three fathers of modern chemistry, while some consider the earlier chemist Geber (d. 815) to be the "father of chemistry".

Chemistry is often called "the central science" because it connects the other natural sciences, such as astronomy, physics, material science, biology, and geology. These connections are formed through various sub-disciplines that utilize concepts from multiple scientific disciplines. For example, physical chemistry involves applying the principles of physics to materials at the atomic and molecular level. The precise nature of the theoretical connection that chemistry (along with the other so-called special sciences) has with physics is a matter of research in philosophy of science.

Chemistry pertains to the interactions of matter. These interactions may be between two material substances or between matter and energy, especially in conjunction with the first law of thermodynamics. Traditional chemistry involves interactions between substances in chemical reactions, where one or more substances become one or more other substances. Sometimes these reactions are driven by energetic (enthalpic) considerations, such as when two highly energetic substances such as elemental hydrogen and oxygen react to form the less energetic substance water. Chemists often use reaction equations to summarize a specific reaction. The chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen is shown in the following equation:

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

The number of atoms on the left and the right of the arrow is always equal in chemical reactions. Other reactions are driven primarily by entropy, which, simply stated, is a measure of disorder. Chemical reactions may be facilitated by a catalyst, which is generally another chemical substance present within the reaction media but unconsumed (such as sulfuric acid catalyzing the electrolysis of water) or a non-material phenomenon (such as electromagnetic radiation in photochemical reactions). Traditional chemistry also deals with the analysis of chemicals both in and apart from a reaction, as in spectroscopy.

All ordinary matter consists of atoms or the subatomic components that make up atoms; protons, electrons and neutrons. Atoms may be combined to produce more complex forms of matter such as ions, molecules or crystals. The structure of the world we commonly experience and the properties of the matter we commonly interact with are determined by properties of chemical substances and their interactions. Steel is harder than iron because its atoms are bound together in a more rigid crystalline lattice. Wood burns or undergoes rapid oxidation because it can react spontaneously with oxygen in a chemical reaction above a certain temperature. Sugar and salt dissolve in water because their molecular/ionic properties allow this.

Substances tend to be classified in terms of their energy or phase as well as their chemical compositions. The three phases of matter at low energy are Solid, Liquid and Gas. Solids have fixed structures at room temperature which can resist gravity and other weak forces attempting to rearrange them, due to their tight bonds. Liquids have limited bonds, with no structure and flow with gravity. Gases have no bonds and act as free particles. Another way to view the three phases is by volume and shape: roughly speaking, solids have fixed volume and shape, liquids have fixed volume but no fixed shape, and gases have neither fixed volume nor fixed shape.

Water (H2O) is a liquid at room temperature because its molecules are bound by intermolecular forces called Hydrogen bonds. Thus, the forces between the molecules are so large that the energy at room temperature is not high enough to break them. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the other hand is a gas at room temperature and standard pressure, as its molecules are bound by weaker dipole-dipole interactions. The hydrogen bonds in water have enough energy to keep the water molecules from separating from each other but not from sliding around, making it a liquid at temperatures between 0 C and 100 C at sea level. Lowering the temperature or energy further, allows for a tighter organization to form, creating a solid, and releasing energy. Increasing the energy (see heat of fusion) will melt the ice although the temperature will not change until all the ice is melted. Increasing the temperature of the water will eventually cause boiling (see heat of vaporization) when there is enough energy to overcome the polar attractions between individual water molecules (100 C at 1 atmosphere of pressure), allowing the H2O molecules to disperse enough to be a gas. Note that in each case there is energy required to overcome the intermolecular attractions and thus allow the molecules to move away from each other.

Scientists who study chemistry are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. The chemistry taught at the high school or early college level is often called "general chemistry" and is intended to be an introduction to a wide variety of fundamental concepts and to give the student the tools to continue on to more advanced subjects. Many concepts presented at this level are often incomplete and technically inaccurate, yet they are of extraordinary utility. Chemists regularly use these simple, elegant tools and explanations in their work because they have been proven to accurately model a very wide array of chemical reactivity, are generally sufficient, and more precise solutions may be prohibitively difficult to obtain. The science of chemistry is historically a recent development but has its roots in alchemy which has been practiced for millennia throughout the world.
Information from Wikipedia.